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Journal paper
篇名(中)人際接觸測量的一致性與正確性:比較問卷調查與接觸日誌
篇名(英)Consistency and Accuracy in the Measurement of Daily Contacts: Surveys and Contact Diaries Compared
論文屬性研究論文
作者姓名(中)傅仰止;林亦之
作者姓名(英)Yang-Chih Fu; Yi-Jr Lin
頁碼019-063
Abstract調查問項能不能準確有效地測出受訪者的行為,常以統計方法推估作為間接佐證,更直接的評估則需藉助實際記錄。本研究以日常生活中的人際接解為例,比較問卷調查結果與深入記錄的接觸日誌兩類資料。目的在透過日誌法來檢驗調查法的行為問項成效。研究資料取自52位報導人在2004年間依序完成的自填問卷調查(第一次調查)、三個月接觸日誌(有效樣本數為4,776天平均接觸記錄)、電話訪問調查(第二調查)。以接觸日誌的實地記錄為依據,有半數報導人在第一次調查(填寫日誌前)時完全正確估計每天接觸人數的等第類別,第二次調查中(在記錄了兩個月的接觸日誌後施測),完全正確者則高達四分之三。文中並比較「每天接觸對象的性別比例」和「主動接觸的比例」,發現接觸對象的性別組合比較容易判斷,而主動接觸的比例涉及主觀判定,在調查問項中的效度較差。估計及判斷的正確性隨性別差異:男性傾向高估自己的日常接觸人數,也略微低估自己主動接觸的比例;女性則偏向低估每天接觸人數,也略微低估自己主動接觸的比例。這種調查訪問作答的性別差異,反映出社會上對不同性別在社會互動或社會關係中的期待模式。研究發現以揭示等第答項來施測每天接觸人數的可行性,並依據實地記錄評估接觸問項在調查方法上的價值。
摘要(英)Survey research has relied on statistical tools to analyze how consistent behavioral items are. It would be more accurate, however, to examine the items with direct evidence, whenever such evidence is available. Using “daily contact” as the subject, this paper evaluates survey results against actual contact records complied from contact diaries. Data included three separate sets that 52 informants completed in 2004 in the following order: (1)a self-administered survey (the first survey),(2)diary-keeping of all interpersonal contacts for three months (n=4,776 days of data about average daily contacts),and (3)a telephone survey (the second survey, taken two months after the informants started keeping the contact diaries). The surveys contained a single-item question about the range of daily contacts (that included six ordinal response categories)and derivative questions about the composition of these contacts. Measured against their actual contact records, half of the informants made a precise estimate in the first survey about the range of their daily contacts. In the second survey, about three-fourth of the informants estimated their daily contacts correctly. The informants also assessed the gender composition among their daily contacts more precisely than they did with the proportion of the contacts that they initiated .Men and women tend to perceive daily contacts differently: men overestimate the volume of their daily contacts and the proportion of initiative contacts; on the contrary , women underestimate their daily contacts and the initiative contacts. Such subtle differences seem to reflect differential expectations of the gender role in the larger society. Using the diary records as the criterion, the study reveals evidence that justifies the use of ordinal response categories in the single-item measurement of daily contacts in large-scale surveys.
Keyword日常接觸;接觸日誌;個人網絡
關鍵字(英)Daily Contact;Contact Diary; Personal Networks
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