Journal paper
篇名(英)Interview Style and Response Quality
作者姓名(英)Su-Hao Tu
Abstract標準化訪問法已行之多年,目的在降低問卷訪談中來自訪員行為造成的回答誤差。不過,針對標準化訪問法是否予以彈性調整,文獻已從訪問風格的觀點進行實驗研究。由於訪問方式彈性化的拿捏得仰賴訪員且訪談行為較不易觀察,訪問風格對問卷回答的影響在國外研究中仍存在爭議,台灣則仍無相關的研究。本研究以電話訪問進行開放標準化訪問原則中對受訪者善意回應的實驗研究,利用調查結果的量化與質化資料,選擇有道德規範暗示性的婚姻生活態度題、有個人隱私與敏感疑慮的題目以及同住家人數的事實性題目,比較標準化訪問法與彈性化訪問法間回答的有效性與正確性。 描述性分析的結果顯示,標準化訪問法中適度的開放彈性後,回答的有效性有些提高,正確性則降低。兩階層波爾松迴歸模式分析的結果顯示,受訪者在婚姻態度與敏感性兩類型題目中的無效回答不會因訪問方式的不同而有明顯的差異。是否彈性開放訪員回應行為只對婚姻態度題目之回答正確性有明顯的影響。比起標準化訪問,彈性化訪問中的回答會重複錯誤的機率較高。本研究發現雖呼應個人訪問法的回答正確性較低,但與類似針對開放訪員感情性回應行為的研究結果則不一致,動機討好理論仍有待更多實驗研究加以證實。
摘要(英)Standardized interview has been adopted for several decades to reduce response bias derived from interviewer-related errors. There has been debate over the extent to which standardized interview can be flexible in the literature. The feasibility of flexible interview is still uncertain due to the difficulty of observing interview interaction which is mostly dependent on the interviewer. While previous studies have not come to any conclusion, there is none of the related study in Taiwan. This study takes interviewer feedback regulated in standardized telephone interview as an example to examine whether flexible feedback behavior can improve response quality among factual, social desirable and personal sensitive questions. The results integrate quantitative data with qualitative data show that the percentage of invalid response is lower in the interview with flexible feedback than that in standardized interview but opposite trend was found in response bias. Two-level Hierarchical Poisson Regression Model shows that interview style exerts no significant effect of on the occurrence of invalid response to social desirable and personal sensitive questions but significantly influences whether response bias repeatedly occurs on the attitudes toward marriage. The chance of having response bias is higher in flexible interview than that in standardized interview. The present findings are similar to previous findings on more response bias in personal interview than in standardized interview but deviant from the results based on the same design of experiment in the previous studies. More experimental studies on the theory of motivation and ingratiation are needed.
Keyword訪問風格; 標準化訪問; 彈性化訪問; 訪員回應行為; 回答品質
關鍵字(英)Interview Style; Standardized Interview; Flexible Interview; Interviewer Feedback; Response Quality
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